Everything You Need to Know About Coronavirus Covid-19
Covid-19 – In late December 2019, an unknown virus disease came into the picture in Wuhan city of China, which was subsequently named as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which was later renamed as Covid-19 by the WHO.
Till the date, there are more than 19 million confirmed cases worldwide. Coronavirus Disease-2019 is an illness that can cause respiratory tract infection.
It can affect the upper respiratory tract i.e sinuses, nose, and throat, or lower respiratory tract i.e windpipe, and lungs.
It is believed that this virus is originated from a food market for illegal wildlife in the Central Chinese city of Wuhan in December 2019.
TYPES OF CORONAVIRUS
Coronavirus is associated with a large family of viruses that are known for causing common cold to many other severe diseases to the human body.
The diseases that can be caused include Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). It also affects birds and mammals.
There are various types of coronaviruses, but only seven of them are known, which affects human beings. Out of them, four are known for causing mild cold or flu-like symptoms. Another three are known for causing severe diseases.
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The seven human coronaviruses are categorized into two segments:
- Common Human Coronaviruses: These are usually known for causing mild cold or flu-like symptoms such as sore throat, cough, fever, headache, and nasal congestion. These coronaviruses sometimes cause complications in the lower respiratory tract like pneumonia. Some of the common human coronaviruses include 229E, NL63, OC43, and HKU1. Mostly, the individuals can recover from the infection caused by these viruses on their own.
- Other Human Coronaviruses: These are the three which originated as animal infections earlier. Over time, with the evolvement, it transmitted to humans. These coronaviruses cause serious problems for human health.
This coronavirus generally causes Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). As per WHO, it is originated from Saudi Arabia in September 2012. It transmitted to human beings from the infected camels. It can be transmitted from one person to another by coming into close contact.
It causes Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in human beings. The first case in human beings was noticed in China in November 2002. It is said that the virus originated initially in bats and then transmitted to other animals. Later, it started infected human beings also. Emerging of this virus can be a significant threat to the world and the public.
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 is the new coronavirus originated in Wuhan city of China in late December 2019. The exact source is still unknown, although it is believed that it originated from an illegal wildlife food market in China. After the outbreak in China, it spread in almost 100+ countries around the world within a few months. By now, there are more than 19 million confirmed cases worldwide and still increasing day by day. It has taken more than 728K lives till now. It is transmitted through human to human.
SYMPTOMS OF COVID-19
The symptoms of Covid-19 include:
- Shortness of breath/ Difficulty in breathing
- Sore throat
- Headache, muscle ache and body pain
- Nasal Congestion
These symptoms can also be an indicator of other illness and flu kind of infection. Also in some cases, these symptom has not been seen in the patients.
There are various risk factors for coronavirus.
- One of the most significant risk factors of Covid-19 is exposure to infected animals and humans.
- The exposure to unknown objects and outside environment can also be a factor that can trigger the infection in the human body.
- Weakened immune systems can also be a risk factor for coronavirus.
WHO ARE AT MORE RISK?
According to the Medical Reports and WHO guidelines, it is said that anyone can get infected with coronavirus and most of the infections are mild.
Now, the question arises who are at more risk.
The older you are, the higher is your risk of severe illness due to Covid-19.
People who are having any chronic kidney disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and a weakened immune system are at a higher risk of severe illness due to the coronavirus infection.
Apart from this, liver patients, pregnant women, high BP individuals, moderate to severe asthma patients are also more likely to get infected and could lead to severe illness.
Almost everyone is having this question, “How can you prevent coronavirus?”
So to prevent the spread of the infection, one should take the following measures:
- Stay Inside: Until and unless it is very urgent to go out, people should stay in their homes. Going outside increases the chance of getting infected from other infected humans or animals.
- Frequent use of sanitizers: If you are outside and you don’t have an option to wash your hand, sanitize your hands with a sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol content.
- Wash your hands thoroughly: Wash your hands with soap for at least 20 seconds, especially when you just have returned from a public area.
- Avoid touching your face: One should avoid touching the face as it increases the chance of getting infected.
- Follow social distancing: If in any case, you need to go out, maintain a proper distance of at least 6 feet from others as it is a community transmitted virus.
- Follow the instructions of authorities: Keep updated with the instructions of WHO and other medical professionals and follow them to protect yourself and your family.
In case, an individual is showing symptoms of Covid-19 or has been in contact with someone diagnosed with it, he/she directly consult with the doctor for medical advice.
Inform your doctor and the health care team about the symptoms that you are facing and exposures before going for an appointment.
Seek immediate care if you are facing any emergency signs and symptoms such as persistent chest pain or pressure, blue lips or face, trouble breathing, etc. Let your doctor also know about any chronic medical conditions such as heart disease or lung infection etc. if you have any.
Till the date, no medication is recommended to treat coronavirus. Antibiotics are also not effective for this viral infection. Researchers are working on various possible treatments and trying to develop an effective vaccine for it.
Corticosteroid Dexamethasone is recommended by the US National Institute of Health for the patients facing severe illness. It is suggested for those who require mechanical ventilation and supplemental oxygen.
To get some relief, the symptoms can be treated with pain relievers, cough syrup, fluid intake, and taking enough rest.
The doctors can also suggest you recover yourself at home if you show mild symptoms. In that case, it is recommended to avoid physical contact with any person or pets to avoid the spread of illness. You can isolate yourself at your home.
One should always wear a mask when around people and the use of a separate bedroom and washroom is suggested to avoid the transmission of infection.
NEED TO BE HOSPITALIZED:
Let’s have a view on “What percentage of patients with Covid-19 need to be hospitalized?”
As the cases are increasing globally, public concern is also growing regarding the severity of the disease. The symptoms are usually mild but around 20% of the patients are affected severely. Almost 80% of the people have recovered from the disease without any special treatment. In the case of children and adults without any chronic illness, there can be seen a minor illness.
Now, the question comes that who is required to be hospitalized?
For some people, Covid-19 can cause serious illness, generally for those who are suffering from any chronic disease such as heart-related disease, lung disease, etc. Out of every 5 people who are infected, 1 can be seen with difficulty in breathing which requires hospital care.
People who are above the age of 60 years and facing health issues like diabetes, hypertension, respiratory disease, heart problems, etc. are at a high risk of developing severe illness, if infected with Covid-19.
So we can say that 1 out of 5 infected people are required to be hospitalized.
Now, when we know the statistics of getting hospitalized, the question occurs “what is the recovery time?“
As per the World Health Organisation (WHO) Reports, it is said that people with mild disease takes around 2 weeks for recovery. In the case of people with critical or severe illness, the recovery time ranges between 3-6 weeks.
Many people are in doubt if Covid-19 disease can spread through sewage?”
According to WHO reports, there is no evidence found which can support this statement. Till the date, there is not any proof that can say that it can spread through sewage. But ignoring this side of the fact can be harmful to the general public. So it is suggested to stay away from any sewage along with the public areas.
Along with that, let’s have a look at “Is smoking a risk factor for Covid-19?”
Smoking is already associated with respiratory infections such as pneumonia, tuberculosis, and influenza. It affects the respiratory system which makes it more likely a risk factor for smokers to get affected with Covid-19 infection very easily. It is a key complication in severe cases of coronavirus as it increases the development of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.
The information given above is universal and collected from various WHO and other medical professional reports. It does not support any statement in particular.
So if anyone is facing the symptoms if Covid-19, it is advised to consult directly with the medical professionals.
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